Tuesday, May 28, 2024

The difference between five-phase and two-phase stepper motor


A two-phase stepper motor is a variant distinguished by having two phases, conventionally named "A" and "B." The stator of a 2-phase motor comprises 8 magnetic poles with small teeth. This design is widely embraced due to its cost-effectiveness, the prevalence of compatible drives, and a well-balanced blend of speed, torque, and accuracy.

A five-phase stepper motor refers to a stepper motor with five electromagnetic coils (phases). Each phase corresponds to an electromagnetic coil, and the rotation of the motor can be achieved by activating different phases in sequence. 


(1) Different number of phases

The two-phase stepper motor is the most basic stepper motor, with only two phases, each of which requires a current reversal cycle. Its torque accuracy is relatively low and its speed is relatively limited.

The five-phase stepper motor is more complex and variable than the two-phase motor, with more electromagnetic coils and a total of five phases. The current of each phase is obtained during the current conversion cycle between the adjacent two phases. This makes the control of the five-phase stepper motor more precise and more able to obtain fine control.

two-phase stepper motor

(2) Different motor control methods

The two-phase stepper motor uses two phases to alternately switch on and off, which has low controllability and is difficult to achieve precise control at high speeds. It also generates large vibrations and noise. Fine-tuning is required to ensure the stability and accuracy of the speed.

The five-phase stepper motor provides an electromagnetic field through a combination of multiple phases, which can achieve more stable and precise control and maintain stable speed and position accuracy at high speeds or high loads.

(3) Different characteristics

In terms of characteristics, the price of two-phase stepper motors is relatively low, and they are suitable for some occasions with cost restrictions, such as household appliances, small CNC machine tools, printers, scanners, etc. However, due to the limitations of its control method and torque accuracy, its application range is relatively narrow.

The five-phase stepper motor has more precise control, higher speed and longer bearing life. It is suitable for machine tools, medical equipment, semiconductor equipment, robots and other fields, and can achieve higher control accuracy and better reliability.

five-phase stepper motor


In summary, there are great differences between two-phase stepper motors and five-phase stepper motors in terms of number of phases, motor control methods and characteristics. Choosing the right motor needs to be based on the actual application and requirements to obtain the best performance and control effect.

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